Another ending

There is a theory, not entirely without merit, that humanity has reached impressive levels of technology in the distant past and then lost it all and regressed to pretty much caveman status. The big issue with this idea is – where did it go? Why are there few, if any artefacts of that past civilisation? Where are the books, the buildings… the statues?

The idea that they destroyed it all themselves before falling back to a primitive state has always been the source of ridicule. Why would they do that? What possible motivation did they have for abandoning the pyramids, including the buried ones in other parts of the world? Why was Gobleki Tepe deliberately buried? Did the hunter gatherers of the time suddenly develop extensive stonemasonry skills, or was it the other way around?

Civilisations have risen and fallen throughout currently recorded history. Many have conquered the known world of the time, only to lose it and fade into obscurity. You don’t see a lot of Byzantians or Romans around these days. So many great civilisations, fallen into dust, in just our short record of human history.

Every one of those past civilisations believed they would last forever. None of them did. So why do we believe ours will be the ‘special one’? Because all the old ones did. It’s human nature. And yet every civilisation falls in the end. They become complacent. They become tolerant. They become weak.

This time feels different. It’s not just like the fall of Rome, it’s global. The whole shitshow is falling all at once. They are smashing their statues, renaming their past, destroying their history. Burying their monuments and closing down their civilisation. They have nothing to replace it with.

Most of modern knowledge is in digital form. What if it was in that form in the past too? Paper books will rot away anyway, but digital? How can that be lost?

Who has a BBC computer with a Cumana disk drive and Cub monitor? (hint: me). 5.25-inch floppy disks. The bee’s knees 40 years ago, hardly anyone would know what they are now. How about cassette or even VHS tapes? Betamax? Laser disk? 3.5-inch disks? All gone, a whole generation has no idea what those things are and yet none of them existed when I was a teenager. CDs. Invented and gone. DVDs losing out to streaming. Vinyl, tapes and CD music… are there many households still using them? (hint: there’s one, it’s me)

What will future archaeologists make of CDs? Some kind of decorative mandala perhaps? They will have no means to play them so they are likely to assume them simple jewellery items made by primitives. With that in mind, look at what they consider ancient jewellery now.

People now store information, documents, photos, in ‘the cloud’. When the power source fails it’s all gone. No need for mass burnings and destruction. Flick a switch, all traces vanish. Nothing for a future archaeologist to find other than some mysterious boxes with wires and disks inside. Well, those that haven’t rusted into dust, if any. There might be an Antikythera mechanism still around.

Will they be able to figure out how to read them? We have 8-inch disks and reels of computer tapes from the past we cannot access now, and we are talking much less than a century. I personally have files in WordStar on 3.5-inch disks that no modern computer will accept, much less read. I’ve already burned a lot of them, they are of no use now.

I have lost whole years of digital photographs while my mother has traditional film and print photographs from before I was born. Digital is so very easy to erase. One solar flare and this world is lost. The paper photos will last a few hundred years but not much longer.

What if it was like that before? An information storage system we cannot access because we have no idea how it worked, nor even that it existed? We have lost so many of our own information systems in a few decades, how can we hope to guess how the builders of Gobleki Tepe stored theirs?

Oh sure, we can say ‘but they were primitive people’ and pretend it’s not simple arrogance. Those ‘primitive people’ built enormous pyramids with geographical precision in a way we ‘advanced’ people can neither replicate nor understand. The temples of the Incas were built on top of stones that were laid in a way far more advanced than they were able to replicate. Even so, we cannot even replicate the Inca methods of building now. Can we be really sure we know all there is to know about those ancient people?

There are many theories as to how, why and when the pyramids and other structures in Egypt and all over the world were built. Not one of them stands up to scrutiny. They were not tombs, that is now clear. They would have taken a very long time and a hell of a lot of work to build, so they must have been important. For what? We might never know.

Gobekli Tepe is an intricate structure with many carvings, some of which are echoed on other ancient monuments. The ‘handbag’ image is particularly interesting in this regard. What is it? I have no idea. And neither does anyone else, including those who have spent their lives studying this stuff. Maybe the 3.5-inch disk will gain similar notoriety in ten thousand years. Already it’s hailed by the young as a 3D print of the ‘save’ icon. Its real purpose has already been forgotten.

Many times, including in recent memory, we have not just forgotten our past, we have actively deleted it. Iraq pulled down Saddam Hussein’s statue. How many of the under-20s even know who he was? When the Soviet Union collapsed, many statues of Stalin fell. Germany refuses to allow any mention of Hitler and model planes of the second world war have no swastika decals for the tailplane. Every second world war plane of the Luftwaffe had that insignia. It’s history. Deleted. They have deleted the past, so future generations are doomed to do it all again.

Now we are in the process of deleting all of it at once. All power generation failing due to an imagined apocalypse that has been ten years away since at least the 1950s. All food production to be deleted because ‘why do you need farms when you can just buy it in a supermarket?’ I am not kidding, that is a genuine argument.

The world has gone insane. Except in parts of Africa, that reservoir of humanity that still lives in the old ways and is ready to repopulate the world once this all falls to the ground. They will once again meet neanderthals, the residue of the white race in the northern lands and it will all start again. Different technology, most likely. Maybe it will work out next time, or the time after that.

It is not inevitable. People could still come to their senses and see they are heading back to massive starvation and a residual hunter-gatherer life. They could still avoid it, although the signs are not good. They seem to want that ending, they want to go back to primitive life but they want someone else to pay for it. They are going to be unhappy to find that that is not how it works. They have brought their own destruction on themselves.

I have lately written about a character called Moros. This character is not fiction, it’s mythology. The difference is that fiction is entirely made up, like my dishwasher goblins or the genie in a beer can story. Mythology is often based on a fictionalised remembrance of something in the past. A story passed down like a Chinese whisper, embellished and sensationalised on the way.

Moros is a character in Greek mythology. He does not kill you, he drives you to destroy yourselves. In this modern world he might have accumulated enough wealth to simply pay you to destroy yourselves while taking no part himself. He might even use a twist on his name.

I know, I know, take out shares in tinfoil companies but do you really think the human world isn’t in a super-self-destructive mode? Do you believe history is not being rewritten and deleted before your eyes? Do you have to wait until the Empire State Building is felled and buried?

There is much talk of ‘people will rise up’ but you know they won’t. They never have. So many believe in the indestructibility of their way of life and consider history ‘the past’. The Fall of Rome. the destruction of the Library, the collapse of the Pharoahs, it’s history, it can’t happen again. Even though it has happened every time before.

The ones who take over think it can never happen to them too. It always does.

Then you get the global one. The ultimate deletion. The one that wipes out everything right down to knowing how to grow plants. As in Seattle’s ‘death zone’ now. Not one of them will survive a reset but that is what they want.

I think the reset is coming. I also think it will not be what those who demand it expect it to be.

The secret is, bang the rocks together, guys.

42 thoughts on “Another ending

  1. I have a friend who is an archaeologist. According to him, a ‘religious artifact’ is an object you find but where nobody knows what it is or what it is for. In future years, a CD or a 5 1/4″ disk will probably be seen as a ‘religious artifact’.

    Liked by 2 people

    • Yes, ‘ritual object’ is archaeologist-speak for ‘I have no idea what this was used for’. Rather like the doctor’s ‘virus’, meaning ‘you are obviously ill, but I don’t know what the cause is’.

      On the whole though, I’m more optimistic. We’ve had these puritanical outbursts many times before, eventually they run out of steam and reality catches up with them.

      And there are plenty of Romans still around. We just call them Italians, French, Spaniards, and so on.

      Liked by 1 person

    • ‘Artefact used for religious purposes’ = “We have no idea what this was for.”
      ‘Artefact used in fertility rituals’ = “We know exactly what this is, but we can’t just put ‘Found another dildo’ in the field report.”
      Truly the ways of the mudgrubbing archaeologist folk are quaint and strange.

      Liked by 3 people

  2. Spot on. I’ve been saying this for a few year now but I am surprised by the speed of the last five years. Bang the rocks together. Which volcano will blow first? Perhaps Yellowstone.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Around the 14th of July, there is an alignment of Sun-Earth-Jupiter. One hell of a gravitational tug o’ war on this planet. Seismic activity seems to be accelerating.

      Yellowstone could well be a candidate. There are other calderas that aren’t dead too.

      Liked by 1 person

      • Err, come on Leggy – you’re a scientist.

        On July 14th, Jupiter is 4.17AU away (let’s round to 4). It also weighs about 317 times the earth. The sun will be 1AU away, and weighs about 333,000 times the earth.

        This means that the gravitational effect of Jupiter on the earth is around 1/16,800 that of the sun on that day. The moon, constantly, has almost 100x the gravitational pull on the earth than Jupiter has at it’s closest…


        • Normally I would say it won’t matter, but there is a lot of tectonic and volcanic instability around at the moment. Jupiter’s pull won’t be very much but it might not take much, at the moment, to set it all off. And once it starts, well the vibrations from the first one set off the second one and suddenly we have a problem.

          It’s not the end of the world, of course. But it might make life very… interesting… for a while.


  3. If a previous high-civilisation had had skills and fabrication-levels comparable to today’s, then we should find, in uncovered remains, concentrations of metals _//other than//_ iron, copper, lead, tin or even zinc, much much higher than the average “background” crustal level. If aluminium, magnesium and other reactives turn up as oxides or sulphides concentrated in remains, then they must have had electricity in large amounts, and also a grid of some sort…and transformers.

    It takes, IMHO, rather a long time for a large grid transformer to decompose entirely into compounds of its constiruent metals. We’d be finding curiously-localised and shaped deposits of, for example, iron (III) oxide associated with copper oxides, suphides and carbonates…no?

    just my initial thoughts here..

    Liked by 2 people

    • It depends what they used. I’m pretty sure the Egyptians didn’t cut perfect stone blocks with their copper tools, and as far as I know nobody has figured out how the South American tribes shaped stone either.

      If you’re building a fortified city you really can’t wait months while someone with a chisel shapes each block. You wouldn’t bother with an absolutely perfect fit, you’d build it fast. So, this suggests they had a quick way to shape those blocks.

      If anyone ever finds that information they’d be a millionaire overnight.

      Liked by 1 person

        • I have wondered, looking at the odd shaped but perfectly matched stones in the Inca buildings, if they did it with a form of cement. It would have to be a formulation that ends up looking just like rock but I bet it’s possible.

          Basically, you fill a biodegradable bag with cement, line them up for your first layer and let it all set. It doesn’t matter if the top isn’t even. Then you put another layer of cement filled bags on top and let them set. They’ll fill any unevenness in the layer below. It would need to set very quickly so it doesn’t take decades to build a wall but it wouldn’t be the cement we have now.

          The bags soon rot away and hey presto, a wall made of perfectly fitting odd shaped rocks.

          I’ve considered trying it with modern cement and the small biodegradable plastic bags. Of course it would obviously be cement, not rock, because I don’t have any Inca secrets 😉


  4. I’ve been fascinated by this stuff, I suppose since reading Erich von Däniken’s “Chariots of the Gods” 40 years ago, although my conclusions are now very different to what they were back then, when an uncritical young mind was open to the kind of nonsense espoused in the book. For example, it seems rather silly to consider that the Nazca lines were ancient alien runways; they allegedly had the technology to travel many light years (millions, if they were intergalactic), but they needed to land like conventional Earth-bound mid 20th century planes. I don’t buy that any more!

    As a creationist, I believe that people were always intelligent. Well, up to about 1960. The way I see it is that, yes, of course there was considerable technology in the past. No tin foil bunnets required; this should be obvious from the evidence. It is the only rational explanation for the Egyptian pyramids and many other archaeological remains and even statues which were made to incredibly precise standards, some of which would be hard to match today.

    As for our own ‘civilisation,’ it seems to be in the death throes, but brought about, not by invading hordes, but by the enemy within.

    Liked by 1 person

      • You failed to quote the important bit:

        As a creationist, I believe that people were always intelligent. Well, up to about 1960.

        Regarding your comment, I rest my case.

        Other than to congratulate you on, a) your incredibly witty remark (never heard that one before! #snore) and b) proving that you know zero about creationism, but felt the urge to exhibit your ignorance anyway due to your devotion to nihilism.

        But really, I bet that as well as being outrageously droll (I’m still almost falling off my chair with laughter), you’re also an expert in origins. Please remind me how the first SRM emerged from the primordial soup. Thanks.

        As the goo-to-you hypothesis is so blindingly obvious and you are so clever, I’m sure that you’ll be the first person in history to give a satisfactory scientific answer to that question.

        {Yes, I am feeling extra sarcastic today.]

        Liked by 2 people

    • I’m afraid I don’t buy into a creationist hypothesis. But we can agree to differ. I think, too, we’ve met before, on the LA Blog, is that not so? I think I remember you.

      Also, I do agree with you that the present assault on us and its attendant horrors come from the Enemy living inside our own civilisation. As you will probably know, I have for long advocated the full shutting-down of all Anglosphere universities for a complete inquisitorial cleanout.

      Non-Anglophone institutions are not so vulnerable, as they don’t contain so many wannabe-destroyers of modern human civilisation and humanity. The main assault is, and always has been, and will be, against specifically English Covilisation, English Civil Society and English notions of political and juridical practice and application. Managers of Chinese universities would have agitators and BLM/SJW “activists” arrested and shot “accidentally, while they were appearing to resist arrest”.

      Liked by 1 person

      • I’m afraid I don’t buy into a creationist hypothesis.

        Neither did I until I was 41 and I began what was to be a long study of the evidence for creationism and the glaring evidence against neo-Darwinism. Evidence for a young Earth includes soft tissue in dinosaur fossils, C14 in diamonds, helium retention in zircons, salinity of the oceans. Evidence against evolution theory includes the complexity of life, degeneration of the human genome, the fossil record showing stasis, not evolution (as Darwin noted, but he expected that the “finely-graduated organic chain” would be found in time, but it hasn’t been) and much more.

        You probably remember me from this blog. I rarely bother to comment on any other blog. VGIF once in a blue moon.

        Agreed that universities need a thorough cleansing. A good many could be shut down altogether and free tuition and grants reinstated for the others, as in my day.


  5. Gobekli Tepe, like the Sphinx, was possibly buried because they knew that nothing survives erosion.
    Perhaps they decided agriculture was a bit boring really so covered their stuff to go and have fun big game hunting. They would have to go far since all the local big beasts had been killed off long before.

    I have a documentary that explores which of our stuff will last longest, it’s a bit lightweight but has some good timelapse footage showing just how easily buildings and machinary decay and fall. Within a few decades all that is left are foundations and rusting engine blocks.
    That documentary is on two external hard drives (capacity ? Whatever £100 X 2 got me a few years ago). I regard all hard drives the same way I did cassettes, fallible. I still have VHS tapes and still watch them, only last week I found that I have the premake (new word ?) of Red Dragon (Hannibal Lector), called Manhunter, just as good.

    There was a reason that medieval monks were forever copying parchment manuscripts, it’s because they only lasted 2-300 years even with care so had to be constantly rewritten just to keep stocks up.

    What fascinates me about Egypt is that, according to conventional archeology, they built a few rudimentary mastabas then within a generation or so there was the Great Pyramid, out of what ? From then on Egypt saw only decline helped along by The Sea Peoples and usurpation by resident aliens known as the Hyksoz (sound familiar ?) before the last dynasty of effete and corrupt Greek Ptolemys fell to Rome. North Africa became Romes bread basket, Egypt alone provided 25% of her tax revenue, what is North Africa now except a sand dune helped by a much diminished tourist trade ?

    As many have pointed out todays malcontents have nothing to offer, they just don’t want what we have now. At this rate our civilisation will soon consist of chucking rocks at rabbits ( they will have to revert to meat because they won’t know how to farm).
    The many waves of Barbarians that flooded into the Roman Empire did not generally want to destroy it they wanted some of that Rome Action.
    So yes, the Anglo version of Western Civilisation is probably on its last legs, I don’t really care since I have no offspring.
    I’ll be happy not being around when China takes over as Top Country, I remember as a boy thinking Nixon was making a mistake helping China back onto the world stage
    Obviously he’d forgotten the lesson of Commandor Perry at Nagasaki and how that turned out 100 years later.


    • I remember reading that because the head of the Sphinx is proportionally too small, it seems the Pharaohs remodelled it from its original (probably) lion head.

      The suggestion was that they didn’t build it but found it already there and adapted it.


  6. I thought you’d have figured out by now that non of this is real. All this is a game being plaid out on some 10 year old kids computer in another dimension.
    He’s had a few goes and that’s why we occasionally run into bits of other games he hasn’t completely erased; a pyramid here a cave painting there and artifacts everywhere.
    Ever get the uncanny feeling you’ve been there done that before? Ghosts are seen by folk who are briefly accessing past games on disk space that’s been erased but not yet written over.
    Sadly, I think this kid can see he’s made another cluster of this go and, even as I type, he’s moving his cursor down to the menu bar to click on ‘Restart Game’. Don’t worry, a second of his time equates to many hundreds of years for us in the game…
    As for the comment mentioning the continual copying of ancient texts…

    A novice monk who was sent to a monastery to make copies of the scriptures.
    After some time the young monk realises he is making copies of copies that have been made from copies. He asks the old head monk if he can use the originals. He is told that the way he is doing it is how it’s always been done. In fact the originals haven’t seen the light of day since the very first copy was made hundreds of years ago.
    Nevertheless, after some deliberation, and accepting the young monks hypothesis that errors could creep in over time and continual copying, he decides to check the originals himself and compare them to the copies so prepares to the library.
    The following morning the monks gather outside the library to hear what the Head Monk has to say.
    The door opens and the old boy comes out. The monks are shocked to see tears streaming down his drawn face as he sobs uncontrollably.
    Through the sobs and tears he manages to gasp, “The word’s celebrate………”


  7. Ha! Just some affectionate personal notes about some of those tech items (ahem!)

    5.25-inch floppy disks. The bee’s knees 40 years ago, hardly anyone would know what they are now. How about cassette or even VHS tapes?

    I still have a few boxed new 5.25 floppies left, have sold some to vintage computer enthusiasts.
    Plus quite a few used ones. Both sorts. (Or was it 3 sorts?)

    3.5″ diskettes? I still have a suitcase full, left to me by an emigrating friend. And more.
    Some still have a really early virus on them I suspect, although I checked a lot. 😉

    At a radio club auction recently I acquired a Sony USB external 3.5″ drive, so all is not lost there.
    And I’ve saved several mountable 5.25″ & 3.5″ drives in good condition, easily usable.
    I mean, to put in a PC case, say. Still have install disks for early Win 3.11-95-98SE-XP etc.

    As for cassettes, I have a quite good Sony ES deck in the hi-fi stack, an even better one in the workshop for a bit of a going over and tweak, and quite a few self-taped metal & chrome tapes, as well as the “normal” ones. Stuff recorded off a good tuner that will never be found again, unique.

    Oh, not just the Concert Programme, classical, even if it has low-res downloads available, but local enthusiast LPFM stations, and the local university radio station shows, no ads, great music.

    Still some minuscule interest world wide, as seen in this local forum thread:
    (Be sure to view the homage coffee table toward the end of page 2!)

    As for VHS, I recorded a lot of music on to a Nicam stereo Hi Fi Panasonic deck I bought in the early 90’s, even using a video camera pointed straight down on to LP or library borrowed CD say to give a still of the cover art, or rear cover track listings, even pausing to move a transparent cut oblong of plastic down over each track to highlight it, so one knew where one was…

    Still have the deck and the tapes.

    Have to admit I haven’t watched movies off it for a while though.

    But then I’m hardly finding time to watch DVDs or even some downloaded or free streaming!

    Oh, and CD’s being used as artifacts? Try a simple search on cd-crafts 😉

    Cheers from NZ ~

    Liked by 1 person

    • Hmm, I wish the new post box was truly WYSIWYG.
      I dislike lines running over, when they appeared on one initially.
      I’ll have to remember to Enter new lines more often.

      And why “RdM said” instead of RdM writes”?
      A default setting that can be altered? ;=})

      (Let’s see if it translates that into a graphic smiley!)


  8. Dumbing down.
    It is becoming less essential to read and write, just be able to tap icons and mojis on a pad. Pay by tapping your card on a screen. Watch all literature dramatised and simplified and made pc on screens.
    First calculators, and then on to computers – you do not need to do hard sums or even guestimate a ball park figure just to see if your computed answer has the decimal point in the right place. I am sure this has led to some engineering and navigational failures.
    You do not have to remember, Google it.
    We increasingly use technology of which we have no idea how it works or how to fix it. Look under modern car bonnet. Want to fix it – plug in your lap-top. Then buy the spare it tells you. Flash new electronic “hand” brake. Flat battery you are stuck.
    Control your house via the Interweb and when that goes tits up you won’t even be allowed access. Computers with all memory and programs in The Cloud.
    We cannot gut fish or beasts. Most won’t know how to grow crops.
    One good man made emp event or solar magnetic storm and we are totally fucked. Transport, communications, power, water management, refrigeration
    We are on a knife edge and governed by fools.
    But look on the bright side, we have TV programmes that a few years ago we would have considered as just insulting. Audiences applauding numbered balls popping out of a machine, with instant replay, my god. People selecting their date psrtner by comparison of genitals.
    Wur doomed Ah tell ye, doo-oomed.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Wow. Enjoyed this reply. There are other things too. But the one idea that is so clear to me with a tiny science background is that our new technology is all as a result of the management of light – I mean particles of light – electrons and so forth. Our eyes and brains must be being affected by watching and using it. Our hand eye co coordination must change surely. We must shift out of the slow to the rapid light flashing, the ideas flashing, thought processing accelerating in the technological domain. Even the concept of ‘the cloud’ is pretty philosophical. ‘Downloads’, ‘uploads’ ‘the web’ etc. Rudolph Steiner predicted that the force of evil would overcome us. It would be like a huge spider with a web that ensnared us. It came to him in a vision in the twenties. And another thought is the Christian idea of Lucifer, the fallen angel, the angel of Light. As symbols of evil, they are both true.

      And I love it all, it’s SO alluring. S’wonderful!

      Humans have been made vast – superficially.

      Pride comes before a fall!

      Reboot is on its way…..


    • Not all of us. There are a few left who can set a snare and tie a fishing fly, and clean the catch. Who can grow food, and who even still cut grass with a scythe 😉 Although the last point is due to me letting it get to waist height this year. Even so, I am getting better with the scythe to where I might not need the mower much longer.

      A few left who can set a fire safely and even sweep a chimney (I’d rather get an expert in but I can do it if I have to).

      I had strange looks some years back because I refused to use a statistics program. I only needed standard errors, standard deviations and P values. I did them all on paper.

      As for TV, gave up on that a long time ago. I have one for playing DVDs of old, pre-hand-wringing films but that’s all it’s for now.

      My son has learned fishing, at least, and his woodwork skills are way beyond mine. I’ll have to teach him the rest so he can survive the inevitable collapse of the snowflake world.


    • “Flash new electronic hand brake”, my old Prius was like that but Toyota went retro and my current Auris has a proper manual handbrake, the only thing I control without electrics.


      • I once rented a car with an electronic handbrake. It was a proto-tank called qashqai or something. A name reminiscent of exploding scrabble.

        I had to pull over soon after leaving Aberdeen because I couldn’t find the screen wash or how to turn the internal demister on among its Star Trek dashboard.

        It wasn’t until Dundee that I realised I had no idea how to do a hill start with an electronic handbrake. Managed to fake it but I don’t want one.

        Currently I have an old RAV4. I did get to try a Prius when it was in for servicing once. It was a bit freaky that it would start rolling with no engine noise…


  9. “From Plato’s Phaedrus, commenting on the invention of writing.

    Here, O king, is a branch of learning that will make the people of Egypt wiser and improve their memories. My discovery provides a recipe for memory and wisdom. But the king answered and said ‘O man full of arts, the god-man Toth, to one it is given to create the things of art, and to another to judge what measure of harm and of profit they have for those that shall employ them.’

    The people who invent something new, create a new tool or technology, are not necessarily the people who are going to understand what the social impact of those inventions will be.

    And so it is that you by reason of your tender regard for the writing that is your offspring have declared the very opposite of its true effect. If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in their souls. They will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks.”

    I’ve lost now, loaned and lost, never returned, this English book I bought in Heidelberg in a sale.

    Alpha Beta: How 26 Letters Shaped the Western World

    Best Regards !!


    • Calculators started to appear when I was doing A levels. They were not allowed in exams and teachers insisted we shouldn’t trust them. It’s too easy to hit the wrong button – and the early ones didn’t have many buttons. I remember there was one (Casio) that could display graphs but with no way to print them, it seemed futile, so I didn’t bother.

      I still don’t use them. we used to be taught all kinds of mathematical tricks to quickly find the answer, now it seems they are taught which buttons to press. What will they do when the battery runs out?

      I am, of course, not entirely innocent of the reliance on writing. In my viva after my first degree, the examiner asked me if I could show the structure of penicillin. No, I said, but I have several books that describe it so I know where to look it up.

      I still couldn’t draw it, but then I still have those books 😉


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